, Between the beginning of July 2011 and end of June 2012 (mid-year estimate date), births exceeded deaths by 4,800. The economic school of Manchester Capitalism developed there, and Manchester was the centre of the Anti-Corn Law League from 1838 onward. As the UK economy continues to recover from its 2008–2010 downturn, Manchester compares favourably according to recent figures. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). By the beginning of the 20th century, salients of urban growth linked Manchester to the ring of cotton-manufacturing towns—Bolton, Rochdale, and Oldham, for example—that almost surround the city, and a new form of urban development, a conurbation, or metropolitan area, was evolving. This reduces urban sprawl, prevents towns in the conurbation from further convergence, protects the identity of outlying communities, and preserves nearby countryside. Previously, notable Manchester acts of the 1960s include The Hollies, Herman's Hermits, and Davy Jones of the Monkees (famed in the mid-1960s for their albums and their American TV show), and the earlier Bee Gees, who grew up in Chorlton. The Guardian newspaper was founded in the city in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian.  In 2012, plans were approved to introduce a water taxi service between Manchester city centre and MediaCityUK at Salford Quays. , Spurred by the investment after the 1996 bomb and aided by the XVII Commonwealth Games, the city centre has undergone extensive regeneration. , Due to being already highly urban, the city contains limited portions of protected green-belt area within greenfield throughout the borough, with minimal development opportunities, at Clayton Vale, Heaton Park, Chorlton Water Park along with the Chorlton Ees & Ivy Green nature reserve and the floodplain surrounding the River Mersey, as well as the southern area around Manchester Airport.  The period was the subject of the movie 24 Hour Party People. Since the opening of new bars and clubs, the area attracts 20,000 visitors each weekend and has hosted a popular festival, Manchester Pride, each August since 1995.. The two began writing The Communist Manifesto in Chetham's Library – founded in 1653 and claiming to be the oldest public library in the English-speaking world. Hulme has undergone extensive regeneration, with million-pound loft-house apartments being developed. Up to about 1960 the city centre recorded the abnormally low total of only 970 sunshine hours annually. , Public houses in the Canal Street area have had an LGBTQ+ clientele since at least 1940, and now form the centre of Manchester's LGBTQ+ community.  The city had a relatively sharp increase in the number of business deaths, the largest increase in all the core cities, but this was offset by strong growth in new businesses, resulting in strong net growth.  The city has 135 parks, gardens, and open spaces..  By 1846, with increasing population and greater industrialisation, the Borough Council had taken over the powers of the "Police Commissioners". By far the most important of these is the one bisecting it from east to west.  The night-time economy has a value of about £100 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Penninesto the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. There are three universities in the City of Manchester.  The local authority for the city is Manchester City Council. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township, but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century.  Meanwhile, KPMG's competitive alternative report found that in 2012 Manchester had the 9th lowest tax cost of any industrialised city in the world, and fiscal devolution has come earlier to Manchester than to any other British city: it can keep half the extra taxes it gets from transport investment. In addition, Manchester Mayfield station closed to passenger services in 1960; its buildings and platforms are still extant, next to Piccadilly station, but are due to be redeveloped in the 2020s. Manchester England England Across the Atlantic Sea And I'm a genius genius I believe in God And I believe that God Believes in Claude That's me that's me. The temperate climate is without extremes: winters are mild, with a January mean temperature in the high 30s °F (about 4 °C), and summers are cool, with a July mean temperature in the high 50s °F (about 15 °C). Close to the upland margin lies a ring of large towns, which were traditionally the major centres of the cotton-spinning industry—Bolton, Bury, and Rochdale to the north and Oldham, Ashton-under-Lyne, and Stockport to the east. Although historically and traditionally a part of Lancashire, areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated into Manchester in the 20th century. Within this physical unit, known as the Manchester embayment, the city’s metropolitan area evolved.  The River Mersey flows through the south of Manchester. A large part of the historic city centre was destroyed, including 165 warehouses, 200 business premises, and 150 offices. In November 2014, it was announced that Greater Manchester would receive a new directly elected Mayor. The local authority fo… In 2018, Andy Burnham, appointed Sacha Lord as Greater Manchester's first Night Time Economy Adviser, following in the footsteps of Amy Lamé, who was appointed by London Mayor Sadiq Khan in 2016 to be the first London night czar. It is achieved by restricting inappropriate development within the designated areas and imposing stricter conditions on permitted building. Summer daytime temperatures regularly top 20 Celsius, quite often reaching 25 Celsius on sunny days during July and August in particular. https://www.britannica.com/place/Manchester-England, Official Site of the Manchester Museum, England, United Kingdom, Manchester - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Manchester - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up).  Their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Salford and Stretford. 376 were killed and 30,000 houses were damaged. Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. At that time, it seemed a place in which anything could happen—new industrial processes, new ways of thinking (the Manchester School, promoting free trade and laissez-faire), new classes or groups in society, new religious sects, and new forms of labour organisation. , The 2012 mid-year estimate for the population of Manchester was 510,700.  By 1963 the port of Manchester was the UK's third largest, and employed over 3,000 men, but the canal was unable to handle the increasingly large container ships.  Manchester was the meeting place of Engels and Karl Marx.  Manchester Cricket Club evolved into Lancashire County Cricket Club and play at Old Trafford Cricket Ground, as do Manchester Originals, a new city-based cricket team founded in 2019 which will play in the new cricket competition The Hundred, representing Lancashire and Manchester. Housing two theatre spaces, five cinemas and an art exhibition space, it replaced the Cornerhouse and The Library Theatre. 135–149.  A commodities exchange, opened in 1729, and numerous large warehouses, aided commerce. Manchester has formal twinning arrangements (or "friendship agreements") with several places. In 1889, the city became a county borough as did many larger Lancashire towns, and therefore not governed by Lancashire County Council. , Cycling for transportation and leisure enjoys popularity in Manchester and the city also plays a major role in British cycle racing..  Another notable contemporary band from near Manchester is The Courteeners consisting of Liam Fray and four close friends. 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