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[5] While the standard was high for expelling a member from the Senate, it was easier to deny a citizen the right to join the Senate. Julius Caesar revised the list and increased the Senate to 900, naturally filling it with his own supporters. Omissions? This document included the name of the presiding magistrate, the place of the assembly, the dates involved, the number of senators who were present at time the motion was passed, the names of witnesses to the drafting of the motion, and the substance of the act. The Senate was the governing and advisory assembly of the aristocracy in the ancient Roman Republic. Tegen het midden van de Republikeinse periode was de senaat de machtigste instelling. The appointment was for life, although the censor could impeach any senator. Three circumstances had combined to bring this about. De laatste koning van Rome, de tiran Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, werd ten val gebracht na een staatsgreep onder leiding van Lucius Junius Brutus. It often acted as arbitrator in disputes among Italian communities, provincials, or client-states. They numbered ordinarily 300. De werkelijke macht bleef weliswaar bij het leger. [5], Meetings usually began at dawn, although occasionally certain events (such as festivals) might delay the beginning of a meeting. It developed under the monarchy as an advisory council; after the abolition of the monarchy in 509 BC, it became the advisory council of … The Senate was directed by a presiding magistrate, who was usually either a consul (the highest-ranking magistrate) or, if the consul was unavailable, a Praetor (the second-highest ranking magistrate), usually the urban praetor. Other venues could include the Temple of Fides or the Temple of Concord,[3] or, if the meeting was outside of the formal boundary of the city, at the Temple of Apollo or (if a war meeting) at the Temple of Bellona. [1] Once debates were underway, they were usually difficult for the presiding magistrate to control. [10], A senator could make a brief statement, discuss the matter in detail, or talk about an unrelated topic. As a result of the civil war of 49–45 bc, the number of senators (which Sulla had earlier raised to 500 or 600) was seriously depleted. In the last two centuries of the Roman Republic, a great change took place. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Hierdoor werd de eigenlijke machtsbasis in de republiek overgeheveld naar het leger en begon een onrustige periode wegens de elkaar de macht betwistende legeraanvoerders. While Senate meetings could take place either inside or outside of the formal boundary of the city (the pomerium), no meeting could take place more than a mile outside of the pomerium. [15] This publication was posted in the Roman Forum, and then sent by messengers throughout the provinces. For example, the Senate might wish to meet with an individual, such as a foreign ambassador, whom they did not wish to allow inside the city. They could not own a ship that was large enough to participate in foreign commerce without legal approval, [1] and they could not leave Italy without permission from the Senate. A consul would seldom venture to disregard the advice of the Senate, especially because he himself, in accordance with steadily growing custom, would become a senator at the end of his year of office. If the Senate proposed a bill that the plebeian tribune (the magistrate who was the chief representative[clarification needed] of the people) did not agree with, he issued a veto, which was backed by the promise to literally "'interpose the sacrosanctity of his person'" (or intercessio) if the Senate did not comply. Wikipedia® is een geregistreerd handelsmerk van de Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., een organisatie zonder winstoogmerk. Letterlijk betekent 'senaat' zoiets als 'raad van ouderen'. It was not an elected body, but one whose members were appointed by the consuls, and later by the censors. Third, the general control exercised by the Senate over provincial affairs implied its direction of the income derived from the provinces. About 312 bc the selection of senators was transferred from the consuls to the censors, who normally chose former magistrates. De tekst is beschikbaar onder de licentie Creative Commons Naamsvermelding/Gelijk delen, er kunnen aanvullende voorwaarden van toepassing zijn.Zie de gebruiksvoorwaarden voor meer informatie. De senaat (Latijn: senatus) was een college van 100 tot 900 senatoren die het Romeinse staatshoofd assisteerden tijdens de periode van het Romeinse Rijk. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. [14] During his term as dictator, Julius Caesar enacted laws that required the publication of Senate resolutions. In addition, if the motion was a senatus consultum, a capital letter "C" was stamped on the document, to verify that the motion had been approved by the Senate. They also had the power to remove individuals from the Senate. De senaat was dus meer een 'gemeenteraad' van Rome geworden, alvorens in ere te worden hersteld na de herovering van een groot deel van de voormalige West-Romeinse Rijksdelen tijdens de regering van Justinianus I. Every branch of state finance was therefore in its hands; it controlled revenue and expenditure and supervised the treasury. This was especially the case with regard to its management of state finances, as only it could authorize the disbursal of public monies from the treasury. De late Republiek zag een afzwakking van de macht van de Senaat, die begon na de hervormingen van de tribunen Tiberius en Gaius Sempronius Gracchus. Throughout the monarchical period the Senate consisted entirely of patricians, and its powers at this time were indefinite. [15], When it was time to call a vote, the presiding magistrate could bring up whatever proposals (in whatever order) he wished, and every vote was between a proposal and its negative. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Senators who failed to obey various laws could also be punished. (It was probably in their capacity of former magistrates that plebeians first entered the Senate.) De overgang van monarchie naar constitutionele orde was waarschijnlijk geleidelijk. Originally the chief-magistrates, the consuls, appointed all new senators. After 202 BC, the Senate responded to emergencies by passing the senatus consultum ultimum ("Ultimate Decree of the Senate"), which suspended civil government and declared something analogous to martial law. It became the chief governing body in Rome and tendered advice on home and foreign policy, on legislation, and on financial and religious questions. A senatus consultum, however, could serve to interpret a law. Het aantal senatoren werd uitgebreid van ongeveer honderd in de beginperiode tot ongeveer 900 man ten tijde van Julius Caesar. Tijdens deze 'burgeroorlogen' in de 1e eeuw v.Chr. The Senate’s powers had by this time extended far beyond its ancient prerogatives. [9][12], Senators had several ways in which they could influence (or frustrate) a presiding magistrate. [3], The ethical requirements of senators were significant. [14], Laws were also enacted to strengthen the requirement that three days pass between the proposal of a bill, and the vote on that bill. One law (the Lex repetundarum of 123 BC) made it illegal for a citizen to become a senator if they had been convicted of a criminal offense. Deze assisterende raad, bestaande uit senioren die vaak magistraten waren, werd gekozen door de consuls, en later door de censoren. The last ordinary dictator, however, was appointed in 202 BC. Dit werd aangegeven met de term Senatus Populusque Romanus (=senaat en volk van Rome) afgekort S.P.Q.R. In 44 BC for example, consul Mark Antony threatened to demolish the house of the former consul Cicero for this very reason. Na de constitutionele hervormingen van keizer Diocletianus werd de senaat politiek irrelevant en had hij nooit meer de macht die hij ooit had. [8] By the late Republic, another type of magistrate, a plebeian tribune, would sometimes preside. [1], While in session, the Senate had the power to act on its own, and even against the will of the presiding magistrate if it wished. Updates? [16] Quorums were required for votes to be held, and it is known that in 67 BC the size of a quorum was set at 200 senators (by the lex Cornelia de privilegiis). [17], The document was then deposited in the temple that housed the Treasury (the aerarium). Like modern quorum calls, this was usually a delaying tactic. Possible reasons for punishing a member included corruption, abuse of capital punishment, or the disregard of a colleague's veto, constitutional precedent, or the auspices. If the Senate did not comply, he could physically prevent the Senate from acting, and any resistance could be criminally prosecuted as constituting a violation of his sacrosanctity. This publication, called the acta diurna, or "daily proceedings", was meant to increase transparency and minimize the potential for abuse. The Senate directed the magistrates, especially the consuls, in their prosecution of military conflicts. In de Romeinse kunst en op munten wordt de senaat vaak afgebeeld als Genius senatus, de 'bezieling van de senaat', die werd gesymboliseerd door een oudere man met baard, gekleed in toga met scepter en boekenrol of lauwertak. This law also required the censors to appoint any newly elected magistrate to the Senate. In addition, the Senate passed decrees called senatus consulta, which were officially "advice" from the Senate to a magistrate. [2], At the beginning of the year, the first Senate meeting always took place at the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. [7] The Senate meetings were technically public[1] because the doors were usually left open, which allowed people to look in, but only senators could speak.

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