Paul had been jailed there and had endured forced feedings after going on a hunger strike. The negative publicity created by this harsh practice increased the pressure on the administration, which capitulated and released all the prisoners.   but their work at this time dealt with women's issues in general, not specifically suffrage. , The women's rights movement was loosely structured during this period, with few state organizations and no national organization other than a coordinating committee that arranged the annual national conventions. Native suffragettes Zitkala-Ša and Susette LaFlesche Tibbles were the active leaders of Native American rights, and their continual advocation of indigenous land rights and cultural identity won them citizenship, and therefore suffrage for all native people born in the United States vis … at the convention, directly addressed some of this opposition in her speech. They also included the demand for suffrage as part of their activities during the 1850s. There was considerable anxiety among politicians of both parties to have the amendment passed and made effective before the general elections of 1920, so the President called a special session of Congress, and a bill, introducing the amendment, was brought before the House again. ", This convention was followed two weeks later by the Rochester Women's Rights Convention of 1848, which featured many of the same speakers and likewise voted to support women's suffrage. Millions of dollars were raised, mainly in small sums, and expended with economic care. , The AWSA, which was especially strong in New England, was initially the larger of the two rival suffrage organizations, but it declined in strength during the 1880s. The clubs avoided controversial issues that would divide the membership, especially religion and prohibition.    Her case argued that as a U.S. citizen, she should be allowed to vote in accordance with the U.S. Constitution, because territorial law was not allowed to contravene U.S. law. , Paul argued that because the Democrats would not act to enfranchise women even though they controlled the presidency and both houses of Congress, the suffrage movement should work for the defeat of all Democratic candidates regardless of an individual candidate's position on suffrage. After Washington on March 22, 1920, ratification languished for months. Neither the AWSA nor the NWSA, both of whom had already endorsed the Republican candidate for president, supported Lockwood's candidacy. An American suffragette carries a symbolic American flag attached to a broom handle, circa 1917. Kenneally, James J. Although a machine politician on most issues, Sargent was a consistent supporter of women's rights who spoke at suffrage conventions and promoted suffrage through the legislative process. Stanton and Anthony, the leading figures in the competing NWSA, were more widely known as leaders of the women's suffrage movement during this period and were more influential in setting its direction. 200", "S653037 Y=55, N=29 JONES, N.M. TO PASS H.J. , During the celebration of the 19th Amendment to the US Constitution’s centennial, “Queering the suffrage movement” has become an effort actively underway in suffrage scholarly circles. , Some other businesses, such as southern cotton mills, opposed suffrage because they feared that women voters would support the drive to eliminate child labor. The amount of representation of sex in government should match the portion of that specific sex in the population. In 1863 Anthony and Stanton organized the Women's Loyal National League, the first national women's political organization in the U.S. In the Midwest, clubwomen had first avoided the suffrage issue out of caution, but after 1900 increasingly came to support it. Middle and upper class anti-suffrage women were conservatives with several motivations. Res.  After another 16 years Florida and South Carolina passed the necessary votes to ratify in 1969, followed two years later by Georgia, Louisiana and North Carolina. , The NYSAOWS New York State Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage used grass roots mobilization techniques they had learned from watching the suffragists to defeat the 1915 referendum. Frances Willard, its pro-suffrage leader, urged WCTU members to pursue the right to vote as a means of protecting their families from alcohol and other vices. When Anthony stepped down as president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) in 1900, Carrie Chapman Catt was elected to succeed her. Henry Blackwell, Stone's husband and an AWSA officer, published an open letter to Southern legislatures assuring them that if they allowed both blacks and women to vote, "the political supremacy of your white race will remain unchanged" and "the black race would gravitate by the law of nature toward the tropics. emerged as part of the broader movement for women's rights. Interest in a national suffrage amendment was revived primarily by Alice Paul.  Many leaders of the National Woman's Party co-habitated with other women involved in feminist politics: Alma Lutz and Marguerite Smith, Jeanette Marks and Mary Wooley, and Mabel Vernon and Consuelo Reyes. , Several of the women who played leading roles in the national conventions, especially Stone, Anthony and Stanton, were also leaders in establishing women's suffrage organizations after the Civil War. Five women called the convention, four of whom were Quaker social activists, including the well-known Lucretia Mott. Stanton in particular welcomed Woodhull's proposal to assemble a broad-based reform party that would support women's suffrage. , Activists campaigned for suffrage in ways that were still considered by many to be "unladylike," such as marching in parades and giving street corner speeches on soap boxes. Stanton was married, with two daughters and five sons, which limited the time she could spend traveling and speaking. When he asked Anthony, who had not been permitted to speak during the trial, if she had anything to say, she responded with what one historian has called "the most famous speech in the history of the agitation for woman suffrage". and it marked a continuation of the shift of women's activism from moral suasion to political action. In the period just before the Civil War, Anthony gave priority to anti-slavery work over her work for the women's movement. Frederick Douglass, a strong supporter of women's suffrage, said, "The race to which I belong have not generally taken the right ground on this question.  Another failed bill, in 1927, led Benet and women involved in the Pan-American Women's Association to press the US Congress to enfranchise Puerto Rican women. I conjure you to remember that this is 'the negro's hour,' and your first duty now is to go through the State and plead his claims. Catt formed the Leslie Woman Suffrage Commission to dispense the funds, most of which supported the activities of the NAWSA at a crucial time for the suffrage movement. In 1846, the Liberty League, an offshoot of the abolitionist Liberty Party, petitioned Congress to enfranchise women. In the end Tennessee provided the critical 36th state. After the birth of her daughter in 1857, Stone withdrew from most public activity for several years. "Review of Goodier, Susan.
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