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Its announcement five days later threw Italy into chaos; German troops rushed in to take over Italy in Operation Achse. In 1930, in "The Doctrine of Fascism" he wrote, "The so-called crisis can only be settled by State action and within the orbit of the State. It also granted a two-thirds majority of the seats in Parliament to the party or group of parties that received at least 25% of the votes.

[57] [81] One thousand "Slav" teachers were forcibly exiled to Sardinia and to Southern Italy. In a speech given in Bari in 1934, he reiterated his attitude towards the German ideology of Master race: Thirty centuries of history allow us to look with supreme pity on certain doctrines which are preached beyond the Alps by the descendants of those who were illiterate when Rome had Caesar, Virgil and Augustus. The death of Benito Mussolini, the deposed Italian fascist dictator, occurred on 28 April 1945, in the final days of World War II in Europe, when he was summarily executed by an Italian partisan in the small village of Giulino di Mezzegra in northern Italy. Many were linked to individual high-ranking Fascist politicians. He beat at the knees of Mother Reality like an unteachable child.

[103] Well over half the population of Cyrenaica were confined to 15 concentration camps by 1931 while the Royal Italian Air Force staged chemical warfare attacks against the Bedouin. Does not exist. Mussolini was happy, too.

[217] He declared that the ideas of eugenics and the racially charged concept of an Aryan nation were not possible.

[76], Borrowing the idea first developed by Enrico Corradini before 1914 of the natural conflict between "plutocratic" nations like Britain and "proletarian" nations like Italy, Mussolini claimed that Italy's principal problem was that "plutocratic" countries like Britain were blocking Italy from achieving the necessary spazio vitale that would let the Italian economy grow. [65] With Rachele, Mussolini had two daughters, Edda (1910–1995) and Anna Maria (1929–1968), the latter of whom married in Ravenna on 11 June 1960 to Nando Pucci Negri; and three sons: Vittorio (1916–1997), Bruno (1918–1941) and Romano (1927–2006). First, he went beyond the vague promise of future national renewal, and proved the movement could actually seize power and operate a comprehensive government in a major country along fascist lines. [130] Believing the Eastern Orthodox Church was inspiring Ethiopians to resist, Mussolini ordered that Orthodox priests and monks were to be targeted in revenge for guerrilla attacks. [42], Mussolini rejected egalitarianism, a core doctrine of socialism. [127] In Mussolini's view, the move was a typically hypocritical action carried out by decaying imperial powers that intended to prevent the natural expansion of younger and poorer nations like Italy. As the Germans approached Rome, Badoglio and the king fled Rome, leaving the Italian Army without orders.

... Class cannot destroy the nation. [26] Mussolini was so familiar with Marxist literature that in his own writings he would not only quote from well-known Marxist works but also from the relatively obscure works. [20], As a young boy, Mussolini would spend some time helping his father in his smithy. [155] French government opinion was more geared towards action against Italy, as they were eager to attack Italy in Libya. In danger of losing the control of all Italian possessions in North Africa, Germany finally sent the Afrika Korps to support Italy. On 24 October 1940, Mussolini sent the Italian Air Corps to Belgium, where it took part in the Blitz until January 1941. [65] Alessandra Mussolini, daughter of Romano Mussolini, Benito Mussolini's fourth son, and of Anna Maria Scicolone, Sophia Loren's sister, has been a member of the European Parliament for the far-right Social Alternative movement, a deputy in the Italian lower chamber and served in the Senate as a member of Silvio Berlusconi's Forza Italia party. As a young man, he "proclaimed himself to be an atheist[197] and several times tried to shock an audience by calling on God to strike him dead. When he announced that the Germans were thinking of evacuating the south, Grandi launched a blistering attack on him. Stupor. Mussolini denounced the PSI, his views now centering on Italian nationalism instead of socialism, and later founded the fascist movement which came to oppose egalitarianism[8] and class conflict, instead advocating "revolutionary nationalism" transcending class lines. He had become one of Italy's most prominent socialists. After the March on Rome that brought Mussolini to power, the Fascists started considering ways to politicize Italian society, with an accent on education. [19] In the meantime, from about 1911 until 1938, Mussolini had various affairs with the Jewish author and academic Margherita Sarfatti, called the "Jewish Mother of Fascism" at the time. Italian radio statement announcing the dismissal of Mussolini and appointment of Badoglio, 25 July 1943. [67] Much later Mussolini said he felt by 1919 "Socialism as a doctrine was already dead; it continued to exist only as a grudge".

newspaper. 111. Without a policy of ten eyes to one, we cannot heal this wound in good time". [114] At various times after 1922, Mussolini personally took over the ministries of the interior, foreign affairs, colonies, corporations, defense, and public works. [126], Confident of having been given free hand by French Premier Pierre Laval, and certain that the British and French would be forgiving because of his opposition to Hitler's revisionism within the Stresa front, Mussolini received with disdain the League of Nations' economic sanctions imposed on Italy by initiative of London and Paris. Emperor Haile Selassie was forced to flee the country, with Italy entering the capital city, Addis Ababa to proclaim an empire by May 1936, making Ethiopia part of Italian East Africa. Ramsbury: The Crowood Press. [174] It was obvious by this time that the war was lost, but Mussolini was unable to find a way to extricate himself from the German alliance. After initial success, this backfired as the Greek counterattack proved relentless, resulting in Italy losing one-quarter of Albania. Overall, he totaled about nine months of active, front-line trench warfare. [151], The new course was not without its critics. [208] Mussolini was given a Catholic funeral in 1957. Cassels, Alan "Mussolini and the Myth of Rome" pp. After being kicked and spat upon, the bodies were hung upside down from the roof of an Esso gas station. The 1929 treaty included a legal provision whereby the Italian government would protect the honor and dignity of the Pope by prosecuting offenders. [91] On 3 January 1925, Mussolini made a truculent speech before the Chamber in which he took responsibility for squadristi violence (though he did not mention the assassination of Matteotti). He had been convicted for this in absentia. [172] That afternoon, he was summoned to the royal palace by Victor Emmanuel, who had been planning to oust Mussolini earlier. Nationalists in the years after World War I thought of themselves as combating the liberal and domineering institutions created by cabinets—such as those of Giovanni Giolitti, including traditional schooling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. pp. As a compromise between his parents, Mussolini was sent to a boarding school run by Salesian monks. But assuming these modifications did take place ... he always wanted to give the appearance of still being a socialist, and he fooled himself into thinking that this was the case. [citation needed], General Mario Robotti, Commander of the Italian 11th division in Slovenia and Croatia, issued an order in line with a directive received from Mussolini in June 1942: "I would not be opposed to all (sic) Slovenes being imprisoned and replaced by Italians. [36] He also wrote several essays about German literature, some stories, and one novel: L'amante del Cardinale: Claudia Particella, romanzo storico (The Cardinal's Mistress). Now, I am little more than a corpse." The American historian Barry Sullivan wrote that both the British and the French very much wanted a rapprochement with Italy to undo the damage caused by the League of Nations sanctions, and that "Mussolini chose to ally with Hitler, rather than being forced…"[133], Reflecting the new pro-German foreign policy on 25 October 1936, Mussolini agreed to form a Rome-Berlin Axis, sanctioned by a cooperation agreement with Nazi Germany and signed in Berlin. In 1917 Mussolini got his start in politics with the help of a £100 weekly wage (the equivalent of £6000 as of 2009[update]) from the British security service MI5, to keep anti-war protestors at home and to publish pro-war propaganda. [124] In a secret speech to the Italian military leadership in January 1925, Mussolini argued that Italy needed to win spazio vitale, and as such his ultimate goal was to join "the two shores of the Mediterranean and of the Indian Ocean into a single Italian territory". [155] However, when the Germans incarcerated 183 professors from Jagiellonian University in Kraków on 6 November 1939, Mussolini personally intervened to Hitler against this action, leading to the freeing of 101 Poles. Mussolini first learned of Operation Barbarossa after the invasion of the Soviet Union had begun on 22 June 1941, and was not asked by Hitler to involve himself. Mussolini unleashed, 1939–1941: Politics and Strategy in Fascist Italy's Last War. While Hitler cited Mussolini as an influence and privately expressed great admiration for him,[216] Mussolini had little regard for Hitler, especially after the Nazis had assassinated his friend and ally, Engelbert Dollfuss, the Austrofascist dictator of Austria in 1934. [162] In October, Mussolini also sent Italian forces into Greece, starting the Greco-Italian War. His real identity is unknown, but conventionally he is thought to have been Walter Audisio, who always claimed to have carried out the execution, though another partisan controversially alleged that Colonnello Valerio was Luigi Longo, subsequently a leading communist politician in post-war Italy. [202] Under the Lateran Pact, Vatican City was granted independent statehood and placed under Church law—rather than Italian law—and the Catholic religion was recognized as Italy's state religion. [121] In the meantime, since for Mussolini demography was destiny, he carried out relentless natalist policies designed to increase the birthrate; for example, in 1924 making advocating or giving information about contraception a criminal offense, and in 1926 ordering every Italian woman to double the number of children that they were willing to bear. [49] Prior to Mussolini taking a position on the war, a number of revolutionary syndicalists had announced their support of intervention, including Alceste De Ambris, Filippo Corridoni, and Angelo Oliviero Olivetti.

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