Acknowledging the extraordinary talents of the man who defined an age and the remarkable men and women who peopled and shaped it, the Napoleon Series seeks to promote the continued, scholarly exploration of that age and is dedicated to the free exchange of ideas and information with good will, intellectual integrity, and respect for divergent perspectives, journeying in international fellowship to probe and illuminate the history of an era whose reverberations still echo today. Attached to Imperial Guard 7,000 (Po,It,Sp) there were many multinational units e.g. When Napoleon arrived in Moscow, he did not get to see the palaces, barracks, and hospitals of which he had heard such great things. In the third line were the 36 recruit depots and militias, which came to the total of approximately 161,000 men of various and highly disparate military values, of which about 133,000 actually took part in the defense. He also raised reluctant men in France using a levy. One of the reasons for the invasion was an unlikely chain of events in Sweden. The Russians were willing to sacrifice anything to defeat Napoleon, even their most prized city. General of Infantry Mikhail Bogdanovich Barclay de Tolly served as the Commander in Chief of the Russian Armies, a field commander of the First Western Army and Minister of War until replaced by Mikhail Kutuzov who assumed the role of Commander-in-chief during the retreat after the Battle of Smolensk. The Kazan Cathedral and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. There also were forces gathered in several places: These forces, however, could count on reinforcements from the second line, which totaled 129,000 men and 8,000 Cossacks, with 434 guns and 433 rounds of ammo. The size of Napoleon's army during the Russian campaign of 1812 is shown by the dwindling width of the lines of advance (green) and retreat (gold). Armand de Caulaincourt, one of Napoleon’s closest advisors, warned him not to invade Russia. Many died at the hands of “General Winter.”. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), also known as Napoleon I, was a French military leader and emperor who conquered much of Europe in the early 19th century. It was extraordinary for many reasons. Tsar Alexander of Russia offered friendship to Bernadotte and Sweden, despite a previous invasion of Swedish territories. With these included total French imperial forces on the Russian border and in Russia came to almost 674,000 men. From Germany came Austrians, Bavarians, Prussians, Saxons, Westphalians, and soldiers from the Confederation of the Rhine. These sappers built pontoon bridges across the Berezina, working under fire from Russian snipers. Website by Effra Digital | Sitemap. There are no definitive records of how many men died in the Russian campaign. Sweden, Russia's only ally, did not send supporting troops. Published by Charles Minard in 1869. Thousands of men died or deserted, and huge numbers of vital horses were also lost. Most of the Russian commanders realized that Napoleon was likely to beat them in open battle. Movie Material: Tommy Prince Was so Effective, Germans Believed he Was an Evil Spirit, The Effects of the Lonely Queen Still Seen Among the Trees of Norway, UC-47, Surveyed After a Century Lying on the Bed of the North Sea, E Company’s Bill Wingett, One of the Famous ‘Band of Brothers’, Passes Away, When The Egyptian Mamluks Crushed The Formerly Unstoppable Mongol Army, The Des Moines Class Cruiser – The Greatest Heavy Cruiser, “Closing down for ever, all the best, goodbye.” Last WW2 Germany Message Revealed, Best Warriors in the World – 5 of the Top Special Forces Units, Schindler’s List “Girl in the Red Coat” was Left Traumatized After Watching Herself in the Spielberg Movie. Richard K. Riehn provides the following figures: 685,000 men marched into Russia in 1812, of whom around 355,000 were French; 31,000 soldiers marched out again in some sort of military formation, with perhaps another 35,000 stragglers, for a total of less than 70,000 known survivors. Thus, the grand total of all Russian forces was 488,000 men, of which about 428,000 gradually came into action against the Grand Armee. When supplies were available, Napoleon discovered he had underestimated what his troops would need. Auxiliaries also came from Croatia, Portugal, Spain, and Switzerland. They were used to fighting in winter, but that did not mean they were immune to its effects. He could not disguise the extent of the failure so well this time, but he could ensure he arrived back in time to spin the story. Traveling well ahead of the remaining troops, he raced back to Paris to manage the political fallout. 200,000 horses that had provided transport and were used by the cavalry were also dead. As irregular cavalry, the Cossack horsemen of the Russian steppes were best suited to reconnaissance, scouting, and harassing the enemy's flanks and supply lines. Central force of 220,000 under the Emperor's personal command. It was hard to sit back and let the French do all the attacking, but the Tsar knew it was the way to win. The Fifth Corps was made up of Polish soldiers. This vast commitment of manpower severely strained the Empire — especially considering that there were a further 220,000 French troops fighting in Iberia and over 100,000 more in Germany and Italy. Despite this, historians have been able to estimate the size of Napoleon’s losses. , Adam Zamoyski estimated that between 550,000 and 600,000 French and allied troops (including reinforcements) operated beyond the Niemen, of which as many as 400,000 troops died.. To ensure a defensive war, Tsar Alexander banned his General Barclay de Tolly from pursuing the aggressive war he would have liked. A third of the troops in the Fourth Corps were Italian. Nearly half the army was not French. , according to the Landesmuseum in Westphalias former capital Kassel, Zamoyski 2005, p. 536 — note this includes deaths of prisoners during captivity, Helmert/Usczek: Europäische Befreiungskriege 1808 bis 1814/15, Berlin 1986, Reserve Officers' Training Corps (Philippines), People of the American Civil War by state, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Etienne-Jacques-Joseph-Alexandre MacDonald, Duc de Tarente, Marie Victor de Fay, marquis de Latour-Maubourg, List of French commanders in the Russian 1812 Campaign, List of Russian commanders in the Patriotic War of 1812, Continuity and Change in Guerrilla War: The Spanish and Afghan Cases, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Order_of_battle_of_the_French_invasion_of_Russia?oldid=4173868. There is no list of the fallen, as would be kept in later wars. Fortunately for Napoleon, his army included skilled and determined military engineers. The Russians beat Napoleon by retreating before his armies could reach them. Provisions brought to Smolensk were meant to support the army for two weeks. Nearly half the army was not French. For many fighting in the French Army, the possibility of being left behind seemed like a fate worse than death. It was a massive force speaking multiple languages, in which even the elite Imperial Guard included units from outside France. The terrible weather that beset Napoleon’s retreat is infamous. The numbers on this chart have 422,000 crossing the Neman with Napoleon, 22,000 taking a side trip early on in the campaign, 100,000 surviving the battles en route to Moscow and returning from there; only 4,000 survive the march back, to be joined by 6,000 that survived that initial 22,000 in the feint attack northward; in the end, only 10,000 cross the Neman back out of the initial 422,000. The retreat information is correlated with a temperature scale shown along the lower portion of the statistical map. While attention is usually focused on the French losses, the Russians also had a miserable time in the war. The Russians had chosen to set one of the jewels of Europe ablaze rather than leave shelter and supplies for their enemies. Portuguese Chasseur a Cheval, Polish Vistula Uhlan, Neuchatel (Swiss) Battalion. Moscow was entered on September 14 and abandoned on October 19. The Nafziger Collection of Napoleonic Orders of Battle, Statistical Abstract of the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon's Russian Campaign of 1812 was one of the greatest disasters in military history. The French forces faced destruction when they reached the Berezina River. They avoided fighting except when they could do so on their terms. There they would suffer a slow death, worked to the grave farming the terrible land they had failed to conquer. The forces immediately facing Napoleon consisted of three armies comprising 175,000 Russians and 15,000 Cossacks, with 938 guns as follows: Monument to Kutuzov in front of the Kazan Cathedral in Saint Petersburg. The waters were swollen from winter rain and snow. Chief of Staff: Major Général (Chief of Staff) Maréchal Louis-Alexandre Berthier, 1st Duc de Wagram, 1st Duc de Valengin, 1st Sovereign Prince de Neuchâtel. The War against Russia starts with the Russian ultimatum to France in april 1812 and ends with the end of the Russian Campaign on 6th of march 1813 (because there was no peace treaty signed the end of the war depends on the respective criteria). Scorching the ground as they went there were no supplies left for the invaders. Polish. IV Infantry Corps General Lieutenant General Lieutenant Shuvalov, since 25 August General Lieutenant, VIII Infantry Corps General Lieutenant Borosdin, IV Cavalry Corps General Major von Sievers, Riga Corps (lieutenant general I. N. Essen Ist), Finland Corps (General Lieutenant F. F. Shteyngel) arrived on fronline later, Ist Reserve Corps (General Adjutant baron E. I. Meller-Zakomelskiy), IInd Reserve Corps (General Lieutenant F. F. Ertel), Bobruysk Detachment (General Major G. A. Ignatev), Smolensk Reserve Corps(General Adjutant baron F. F. Wintsingerode), Kaluga Reserve Corps (General of the Infantry of, 27th Infantry Division (General Major D. P. Neverovskiy), II Corps (General Lieutenant Essen-IIIrd), Reserve Corps (General Lieutenant Sabaneiev), Detachment in Serbia (General Major N. I. Luders), Richard K. Riehn See 1812: Napoleon's Russian Campaign. The Fifth Corps was made up of Polish soldiers. Napoleon invaded Russia at the head of an army of over 600,000 men but by the start of 1813 only 93,000 of them were still alive and with the army. He had expected to enter with glory, met by a delegation of the city's highest officials assembled in recognition of his victory and ready to negotiate peace. Copyright 1995 – 2020, The Napoleon Series. Therefore, he was able to recruit soldiers from a whole host of conquered territories, client kingdoms, and allied states. First snow falls on November 4.
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