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who discovered salt

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What is now thought to have been the first city in Europe is Solnitsata, in Bulgaria, which was a salt mine, providing the area now known as the Balkans with salt since 5400 BC. Davy found it was a metal. This evidence shows that while those with hypertension should primarily focus on reducing sodium to recommended levels, all groups should seek to maintain a healthy level of sodium intake of between 4 and 5 grams a day. Indiana University Press. In Britain, the suffix "-wich" in a placename means it was once a source of salt, as in Sandwich and Norwich. [80], The manufacture of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries. [76] The evaporation of seawater is the production method of choice in marine countries with high evaporation and low precipitation rates. [12], During India's independence movement, Mohandas Gandhi organized the Salt Satyagraha protest to demonstrate against the British salt tax. Salt evaporation ponds are filled from the ocean and salt crystals can be harvested as the water dries up. Dairy salt is used in the preparation of butter and cheese products. As an emulsifier, salt is used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, and another use is in the firing of pottery, when salt added to the furnace vaporises before condensing onto the surface of the ceramic material, forming a strong glaze. "Science Magazine, August 14,­ 1998. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/281/5379/898?ijkey=ATm56Jl8nBVYU, ­Zuger, Abigail. Some people put a desiccant, such as a few grains of uncooked rice[36] or a saltine cracker, in their salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up salt clumps that may otherwise form. The British controlled saltworks in the Bahamas as well as North American cod fisheries. [33][34][35] Usually, anticaking agents such as sodium aluminosilicate or magnesium carbonate are added to make it free-flowing.

Iodized salt, containing potassium iodide, is widely available. [95] One of these mentions Lot's wife, who was turned into a pillar of salt when she looked back at the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis 19:26) as they were destroyed. You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website. Although salt was popular for centuries, the discovery of sodium only happened in 1807 because it is a highly reactive element that is hard to isolate. There are many other processes in which salt is involved. Another name for caustic soda is sodium hydroxide (NaOH). It is often added to processed foods (such as canned foods and especially salted foods, pickled foods, and snack foods or other convenience foods), where it functions as both a preservative and a flavoring. It can be useful for brining, bread or pretzel making and as a scrubbing agent when combined with oil.[54]. During the Middle Ages, salt was transported along roads built especially for … [42], The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. [11], In many East Asian cultures, salt is not traditionally used as a condiment. [79], In 2018, total world production of salt was 300 million tonnes, the top six producers being China (68 million), the United States (42 million), India (29 million), Germany (13 million), Canada (13 million) and Australia (12 million). It is also believed to cleanse an area of harmful or negative energies. [1], Salt created and destroyed empires. In the United States and Canada extensive underground beds extend from the Appalachian basin of western New York through parts of Ontario and under much of the Michigan basin. [48], Unrefined sea salt contains small amounts of magnesium and calcium halides and sulfates, traces of algal products, salt-resistant bacteria and sediment particles. A small amount of dextrose may also be added to stabilize the iodine.

One of the traditional methods of salt production in more temperate climates is using open pans. [73], Only about 6% of the salt manufactured in the world is used in food. [14] Salt was very important to Europe because it was hard to trade with Africa and they needed to produce it themselves. Its discovery helped scientists uncover important processes ranging from how sodium ions create electrical signals in the body to regulating your pH level. The University of Chicago Press Journals: The Discovery of Potassium and Sodium, and the Problem of the Chemical Elements. A small amount of it is necessary for the human diet, but it is harmful in large amounts. [citation needed] Hippocrates encouraged his fellow healers to use salt water to heal various ailments by immersing their patients in sea water. Pittsburgh Post Gazette, August 28, 2003. http://www.post-gazette.com/food/20030828salttasting0828fnp3.asp, "Prevention: Guide to Lower Blood Pressure." When Marco Polo returned from Cathay for the first time in 1295, he delighted the Doge with a salt coin bearing the seal of the great Khan. In the second half of the 19th century, industrial mining and new drilling techniques made the discovery of more and deeper deposits possible, increasing mine salt's share of the market. All through history, the availability of salt has been pivotal to civilization. In France, 35% of the table salt sold contains added sodium fluoride. In the Middle Ages it was mined in shafts stretching for kilometres, often at depths of up to 500 metres. Pure sodium can go up in flames if it comes in contact with water, so he had to make sure it was in a moisture-free environment. The Merck Manual of Health and Aging. It helped to eliminate dependence on seasonal availability of food, and made it possible to transport food over large distances. But back in the day, this type of preservation wasn’t limited to meat: Mummies were packed in salt too. HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate. For salts in chemistry, see, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBarber1999 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFWellerDumitroaia2005 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFWellerBrigandNuninger2008 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFKurlansky2002 (. The history of the relationship between salt and man started with animals that created paths whilst looking for salt, people followed these paths and they eventually became roads. Many salt roads, such as the via Salaria in Italy, had been established by the Bronze Age. Early hunters could get a steady supply of salt from meat, but agricultural groups had to seek it out by following animal tracks to salt deposits. Since taste and aroma compounds are often detectable by humans in minute concentrations, sea salt may have a more complex flavor than pure sodium chloride when sprinkled on top of food.

[96], In Judaism, it is recommended to have either a salty bread or to add salt to the bread if this bread is unsalted when doing Kiddush for Shabbat. [1][3] In adults and children with no acute illness, a decrease in the intake of sodium from the typical high levels reduces blood pressure. Copyright 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. "With Dietary Salt, What 'Everyone Knows' Is in Dispute." [23] These salt blocks served as a form of currency. [77] The raw salt is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics. Why is the Challah dipped in salt before it is eaten? The open-pan salt making method was used along the Lincolnshire coast and in the saltmarshes of Bitterne Manor on the banks of the River Itchen in Hampshire where salt production was a notable industry.[13]. At the time of Brahmanic sacrifices, in Hittite rituals and during festivals held by Semites and Greeks at the time of the new moon, salt was thrown into a fire where it produced crackling noises. Not only did salt serve to flavor and preserve food, it made a good antiseptic, which is why the Roman word for these salubrious crystals (sal) is a first cousin to Salus, the goddess of health. TL;DR (Too Long; Didn't Read) Sir Humphry Davy, a British chemist, discovered sodium in 1807. The origin of sodium’s name comes from the English word soda. In Ethiopia blocks of salt, called amoleh, were carved from the salt pans of the Afar Depression, especially around Lake Afrera, then carried by camel west to Atsbi and Ficho in the highland, whence traders distributed them throughout the rest of Ethiopia, as far south as the Kingdom of Kaffa.

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